Tuesday, September 27, 2011

The Zucchini Blues

This time of year many people are suffering from a bad case of the zucchini blues.  Got too many in your garden (I do)?  Do friends run when they see you with an armful of zucchini?  Remind them zucchini are low in saturated fat, sodium and cholesterol and a good source of thiamin, niacin, fiber, protein, vitamin a, c, b6 (contrary to what Morgan thinks), folate, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, copper and manganese.  So there.  Combine this with the honey from our bees which has flavonoids and phenolic acids that act as antioxidants that work to prevent cellular damage leading to heart disease, aging and cancer and you've got one healthy combination.  Here's a few easy zucchini honey recipes.
Oh oh more zucchini

 Zucchini Honey Muffins Recipe

Ingredients

3
eggs
2
cups zucchini
1/2
cup honey
2
cups whole wheat flour
1
cup oatmeal
1
cup canola oil
1/2
tsp baking powder    
2
tsp baking soda
1
tsp vanilla
1/2
tsp nutmeg
1/3
cup walnuts



Directions
  1. preheat oven 350
  2. Grate zucchini combine eggs oil and honey in large bowl
  3. mix all dry ingredients together well add to egg mixture blend well add zucchini and nuts use paper cups or grease muffin tins bake 20 minutes

Makes 24 muffins


Grilled Zucchini with Honey Balsamic Glaze

Ingredients

4 medium sized zucchini cut in half lengthwise
3 tbsp balsamic vinegar
1.5 tbsp honey
salt
pepper
terrigon (optional)

Directions

1. Heat up your grill.
2. Put wine in your wine glass
3. Cut zucchini lengthwise in half and season with salt and pepper
4. Take a drink of your wine
5. In a small bowl combine balsamic vinegar, terrigon and honey
6. Take another drink of wine
7. Place zucchini cut side down on medium hot grill
8. Turn over after 5 minutes and brush with balsamic mixture
9. Take another drink of wine
10. Cook another 5 minutes then brush flat side again and turn over
11. Brush uncut sides with remaining mixture and cook another 5 minutes or until the zucchini carmalizes
12. Drink the rest of your wine and eat your zucchini

Makes 4 servings or 2 if you're real hungry

Monday, September 19, 2011

Yummy honey


Removing the honey frames.

Earlier this year, Cottonwood Community Gardens got its own beehive.  Armed with minimal experience but a lot of enthusiasm, those of us on Cottonwood’s Bee Team have been figuring out how to care for these complex and incredibly helpful little creatures -- all 30,000 or so of them. At our stage in the game, bee husbandry is a group effort.  At each regular hive inspection, we need one person to operate the smoker, one person to lift the frames, one person to actually inspect the hive... it’s a lot of work, the kind of thing that is best done by a community, and another example of the power of collaborative gardening.

Smoking the hive.
On August 28th, we did our first big honey extraction.  Serge removed the frames from the hive’s top super (beehive box) and brushed the bees off, while Samantha applied smoke to calm them down.  In the meantime, Jackie cut strips of burlap to be burned in the smoker, and helped Samantha to re-light it.

Once we removed all of the frames, we moved to a work area that we’d prepared in one of Cottonwood’s sheds.

That was when the fun part began.  Armed with a metal spatulas and kitchen knives, we gently broke open the honey cells that the bees had constructed on each frame.  The texture of the honeycomb was gooey and delicious.

The frames that we had opened were placed into the extractor two at a time.  The extractor is basically a big metal drum with fitted with a basket that holds two frames, along with a big crank on top.  You secure the extractor (in our case, by sitting on it), turn the crank vigorously, and the centrifugal force pulls the honey out of the wax cells.

Serge, Bruce and Samantha figuring out how to use the extractor
While Bruce, Serge and Dan worked the extractor, other team members monitored the canning kettle that we used to sterilize the glass jars that Cottonwood gardeners had donated, and heated up up spatula and knife in the steam to help it melt through the frame’s wax.

Due to our lack of experience as beekeepers, not all of the frames were pure honey.  We encountered a number of frames that were at least partially filled with brood (larvae).  This was a problem, because we couldn’t put these frames into the extractor (just imagine the ride that the baby bees would get).  Even worse, the brood cells kept hatching as we worked.  Our shed started to fill up with very confused newborn hive members.

Some of the honey was so gooey that it
didn't even make it into the extractor.

In preparation for our next extraction, the team is going to use a queen excluder -- a grate that keeps the queen within a designated area where she can lay her eggs, preventing her from reaching the frames that we have earmarked for honey.

By the end of the day, we extracted a huge amount of honey -- we lost count, but it was probably something like 20 jars.  Best of all, the bees did all of the cleanup for us, swarming our work area just as we finished working and licking up every tiny drop of honey and wax from our equipment within the next 24 hours.

Bees do a lot more that just make us tasty honey.  They are incredible pollitators.  Without them, we wouldn’t have any fruit or nuts to eat.  Moreover, these social creatures have united those of us at Cottonwood in an amazing new community endeavour.

Honey is yummy.


(Post by Rebecca Cuttler.  More writing at www.gardenproduce.ca)

Saturday, September 17, 2011

Make your Garden a Bee Friendly Garden


Nest of a ground dwelling bee

                                                                                                                                                                                                          .
        There are approximately 20,000 species of bees in the world.  British Columbia has approximately 450 species of bees but with further identification that number could grow to 500 within a few years. Many of the bee species are non-social or solitary.  70% of the bee species in North America are ground dwelling bees including some species of bumble bee (bombus).  Although there are obvious benefits to mulching (water retention, weed control) areas of bare earth provide a nesting area for ground dwelling bees.

  
                                                              Mason Bees at City Farmer
                                                                                                                                                              
     One of our native bees (Blue Orchard Mason Bee) the Blue Orchard Mason bee likes the clay between rocks. Wood or stem nesting bees prefer a pile of branches and all species need a source of water for nest construction or cooling.  It is easy to build your own mason bee home (Mason Bee Vancouver).  

Mason Bee home
Being a bee is thirsty work
     Consider providing a bee bath which should be shallow (bees are not good swimmers) with a landing area.  It is important to remember that bees are not aggressive away from the hive.  If a bee lands on you away from the hive it will not sting you unless it is physically threatened.   Consider reducing or eliminating your lawn and growing plants that will provide habitat and food for bees and other criters.   Do not use toxic herbicides and pesticides.  Bees have a relatively weak immune system and as such are a prime indicator species for the toxic effects of a product.  To learn more about the effects of insecticides on bees go to Insecticides and Bees post in this site and to the Insecticides and Bees section of our Beekeepers' Library.

Bumble Bee (Bombus) enjoying a Cosmos (not Kramer)
What a bee sees
we see 
bees see
add in UV
red
black
uv purple
orange
yellow/green*

yellow
yellow/green*
uv purple
green
green

blue
blue
uv violet
violet
blue
uv blue
purple
blue

white
blue green

black
black


     Bees see colours differently than we do and studies show they prefer purple, violet and blue in that order. Bees can see ultraviolet light patterns invisible to us.  Having said that you will find bees enjoying flowers of all colours.  When choosing plants you should provide a succession of flowers (pollen and nectar) that will feed the bees from early spring to late fall.  Use native plants which have specific adaptations for your area and attract native bees which have adapted to these specific characteristics.  Avoid plants that are highly hybridized as this often reduces the amount pollen and nectar and leaves the plant sterile.  Single flower tops like daisies or marigolds are better than the more showy double flowers (i.e. double impatient) which have less nectar and are more difficult for bees to access their pollen.   Nectar is loaded with sugar and is the bees main energy source while pollen provides a balanced diet of protein and other nutrients.  Bees prefer plants grown in groups (3-4) rather than as individual plants.  Bees, being cold blooded prefer sunny spots over shade and need shelter from strong winds.

Bee Balm

Dill
The key is to provide plants that flower through the entire growing season including early spring and fall.   Some of the plants bees like in spring are crocus, hyacinth, borage, calendula, lilac, blueberry, plum and cherry.  In summer bees love bee balm, salvia, cosmos, echinacea, california lilac, lavender, chives, clover, tomatoes, raspberries, mallow, locust trees, rudbeckia, snapdragon and foxgloves.  In the fall there are zinnia, sedum, asters, calendula, Japanese anemone, witch hazel, goldenrod and heather.  I've noticed that bees love invasive plants like mint, fennel, blackberry, lemon balm and goldenrod.  In our community garden we have found a few seasonal favorites like raspberries in June, Black Locust trees in July, blackberries in August, asters in September and Calendula and Japanese Anemone in October.  Here is a list of plants that bees love.


*For a more complete list of plants bees luv go to the Bee Plants page of this site or to the Planting for Pollinators section of our Beekeepers' Library

Here's a few sources of information for making your garden a bee friendly garden.  Though some of the sources are Californian most if not all of the plants are grown here:  

Bees love sunflowers





The Melissa Garden
Urban Bee Gardens
Make a Bee friendly garden




Don't mess with my home, homie


The Honeybee Conservancy  http://thehoneybeeconservancy.org/


Tuesday, September 13, 2011

Checking for Bee Mites in Vancouver


Varroa Mite on adult bee
    It's mid September and feels like the middle of summer.  With the warm temperatures the bees are very active, collecting nectar and pollen.  I've noticed a few flowering food plants still receiving attention from the ladies like red flowered pole beans, garlic, leek, fennel and dill.  Many of the flowers are still in bloom.
     We have done 3 twenty four hour Varroa mite tests recently and our findings show a maximum of 12 Varroa mites.  The mites are not considered a significant problem until the count reaches 100.  Although there are a number of different mites that effect bees, the other major culprits, Nosema and Tracheal can only be detected by microscopic inspection of adult bees.  We use a home made screened bottom board which not only helps to ventilate the hive in both summer and winter but allows the mites to fall out of the hive when removed by the bees.  I left a slot in the back of the screened bottom board for mite testing.  The test board is a piece of plywood painted yellow for better visibility and covered with vaseline.

Replacing mite testing board at the back of the bee hive
     The Varroa is a parasitic mite associated with honey bees.  The genus Varroa was named for a Roman scholar and beekeeper, Marcus Terentius Varro.  I bet Marcus isn't happy about this.  The Varroa mite feeds off the fluids of adult, pupal and larvae honey bees.  They may carry viruses and have been implicated in colony collapse disorder.  Not wishing to use chemical treatment (Apistan, Checkmite, Formic Acid…) we will treat naturally with powdered sugar or food grade mineral oil.  Testing for mites should be done in the early spring or fall and treatment either before the honey supers have been added or after they have been removed.

Varroa mites on pupa

The life cycle of the honeybee and varroa mite

Monday, September 12, 2011

"The Ailing Queen" at Vancouver International Film Fest

The Ailing Queen



This year's Vancouver International Film Festival will be showing The Ailing Queen, a film about Colony Collapse Disorder.  It sounds like an interesting film for all of us who care about bees. 



The Ailing Queen
[AILIN] (Feature) Canadian Images
(Canada, 2011, 90 mins, HDCAM)
In French with English subtitles
Directed By: Pascal Sanchez

PRODS: Hugo Latulippe, √Čric Deghelder
CAM: Geoffroy Beauchemin, Pascal Sanchez
ED: Natalie Lamoureux
MUS: Serge Nagauchi Pelletier
Director Pascal Sanchez's examination of the worldwide efforts to battle bee-colony collapse concentrates on young, energetic beekeeper Anicet Desrochers. Working through the seasons to strengthen his colonies and spread the word about his methods, Desrochers is a pioneer of a more ecological method of managing bees and the fields they pollinate--and upon which the earth's entire agricultural production depends.

“The early passages focus on Desrochers' efforts to ship healthy queen bees to fellow beekeepers suffering under their own collection of ailing queens. Hive loss, or the sheer death rate of bees, has varied from region to region in recent years, but a mortality rate as high as 60% has hit many keepers. The film patiently reveals Desrochers as a serious student of his craft as he explains the signs of healthy and sick colonies, methods of restoration, and some of the underlying problems stemming from the excessive use of chemicals and pesticides, which he thinks have propelled the crisis. Desrochers' efforts to create bees naturally resistant to viruses and diseases has already won him and his modest farm in the Hautes-Laurentides region of Quebec international regard, but Sanchez's humble filmmaking style never drumbeats that we're watching a hero--just a guy who loves bees and nature, and understands the science guiding them both. “--Robert Koehler, Variety

Friday, September 9, 2011

Invitation to Vancouver Bee lovers

We do a bee hive inspection 8-10 times a year at Cottonwood Garden.  If you are a beekeeper wishing to exchange information, an aspiring beekeeper or someone who just thinks bees are groovy you are welcome to attend.  For our next hive inspection date contact us at strathconabees@gmail.com.  
Beecome a Bee Hugger.  Have you hugged a Bee today?

Tuesday, September 6, 2011

Canary in the Coal Mine (Colony Collapse Disorder)



     Colony Collapse Disorder is a phenomenon in which an entire colony of bees abruptly disappears from its hive. The term was first applied in 2006 following a drastic rise in the disappearance of honeybee colonies in North America and Europe.  Cases of CCD have since been reported globally. The food staples of corn, wheat and rice are wind pollinated but a third of global farm output depends on animal pollination, mostly by honey bees.  These foods provide 35% of our calories, most of our minerals, vitamins and anti-oxidants.  Albert Einstein claimed that "if the bee disappeared off the surface of the globe, man would have only four years to live".  Albert was given to bold claims, often wrong but in this case there is a foreboding element of truth.  Winter death of bee colonies has risen in the U.S. from a norm of 10% to 30% and in Canada from 15% to 35%.  A similar trend is being realized globally.  Bee colonies worldwide were shrinking even before CCD because of cheap imported honey from Asia (China being the biggest producer). In China pesticides used in pear orchards wiped out bee populations in parts of Sichuan and today some areas pollinate by hand using feather brushes.  Studies show that even low levels of pesticides reduce the resistance of bees to fungal pathogens. While researchers have not identified a single cause of CCD they believe there is a combination of factors:  blood feeding parasites (i.e. Varroa mites); pesticide exposure (lowered immune system); bee viruses; fungi; and decreased plant diversity causing poor nutrition for honeybees.  Bees have a third the number of genes involved in their immune system as compared to other insects like fruit flies.  This makes them particularly susceptible to the effects of pathogens or pesticides making them a prime indicator species for a screwed up agricultural system based on a screwed up economic system.  Whatever the final solution it is clear that the practice of decreased plant diversity and increased pesticide usage to increase agricultural productivity for increased profit is realizing dire consequences.  


      A number of beekeepers in East Vancouver (Bryce and Kelly in Strathcona) lost their bees last winter.  Cause, unknown.  We are fortunate to keep our bees at Cottonwood Garden which is a four acre, organic community garden in Strathcona Park.  There is no pesticide usage in the garden and there is a very diverse food supply for the bees.  While there is a wide variety of fruits, vegetables and flowers we have noticed seasonal favorites like raspberries in June, Black Locust trees in July and blackberries in August. Members of the community can help out the bees by planting a diverse, bee friendly landscape (Make your garden a bee friendly garden) and not using pesticides.  Check out these videos on CCD:

To Bee or Not To Bee (David Suzuki)
Dennis vanEngelsdorp - A Plea for Bees (Ted.com)
60 Minutes - Why are the Honeybees Disappearing (Part 1)  
 60 Minutes - Why are the Honeybees Disappearing (Part 2)
Colony Collapse Disorder (University of Illinois)

For more videos on Bees and Beekeeping go to the Video Page of this website.

One possible solution organic farming, organic gardening, organic beekeeping and organic living.



Honey bee enjoying a sedum (stonecrop) at Cottonwood Community Garden
                                                                                                                                                                         

Friday, September 2, 2011

The Vancouver Honey Bee Maternity Ward

Worker bees tending to the larvae
These great photos by Dan (not the queen although sometimes he thinks he is) of our babies shows the development of eggs through to larvae.  The bee larvae hatch from the eggs in 3-4 days after the queen lays them and are fed bee bread (a mixture of royal jelly, nectar or diluted honey, and pollen) by worker bees.  Queen larvae are fed pure royal jelly right up to the time their cell is capped.  The cells are capped with wax by worker bees when the larva pupates.  Their development is much like that of a butterfly.  Queens emerge from their cells in 16 days, workers in 21 days and drones (lazy  
Lazy drone
males) in 24 days.  The average lifespan of a queen is 3-4 years, the drones usually die after mating or are kicked out of the hive (they have no stinger) before winter and the worker bees may live six weeks in the summer or survive several months in the hive over the winter.

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